May 25, 2020

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May 22, 2020


Most of the people don't go with videos and read books for learning. Book reading is a really effective way to learn and understand how things work. There are plenty of books about computers, security, penetration testing and hacking. Every book shows a different angle how things work and how to make system secure and how it can be penetrated by hackers. So, here I have gathered a few of the best hacking books of 2018 available on the market.


There are hundreds of books about hacking, but I have streamlined few of best hacking books of 2018.


This handbook is about experting yourself with the hacking techniques in the hacker's way. This is about penetration testing that how hackers play their techniques and how we can counter them.


  • Introduction
  • Pregame – The Setup
  • Setting Up a Penetration Testing Box
  • Before the Snap – Scanning the Network
  • The Drive – Exploiting Scanner Findings
  • The Throw – Manual Web Application Findings
  • The Lateral Pass – Moving Through the Network
  • The Screen – Social Engineering
  • The Onside Kick – Attacks that Require Physical Access
  • The Quarterback Sneak – Evading AV
  • Special Teams – Cracking, Exploits, Tricks
  • Post Game Analysis – Reporting
Download the Hacker's Playbook Practical Guide to Penetration.


The Android Hacker's Handbook is about how the android devices can be hacked. Authors chose to write this book because the field of mobile security research is so "sparsely charted" with disparate and conflicted information (in the form of resources and techniques).


  • Chapter 1 Looking at the Ecosystem
  • Chapter 2 Android Security Design and Architecture
  • Chapter 3 Rooting Your Device
  • Chapter 4 Reviewing Application Security
  • Chapter 5 Understanding Android's Attack Surface
  • Chapter 6 Finding Vulnerabilities with Fuzz Testing
  • Chapter 7 Debugging and Analyzing Vulnerabilities
  • Chapter 8 Exploiting User Space Software
  • Chapter 9 Return Oriented Programming
  • Chapter 10 Hacking and Attacking the Kernel
  • Chapter 11 Attacking the Radio Interface Layer
  • Chapter 12 Exploit Mitigations
  • Chapter 13 Hardware Attacks
Download Android Hacker's Handbook.


This book is an effective practical guide to penetration testing tools and techniques. How to penetrate and hack into systems. This book covers beginner level to highly advanced penetration and hacking techniques.


  • Chapter 1: Setting Up Your Virtual Lab
  • Chapter 2: Using Kali Linux
  • Chapter 3: Programming
  • Chapter 4: Using the Metasploit Framework
  • Chapter 5: Information Gathering
  • Chapter 6: Finding Vulnerabilities
  • Chapter 7: Capturing Traffic
  • Chapter 8: Exploitation
  • Chapter 9: Password Attacks
  • Chapter 10: Client-Side Exploitation
  • Chapter 11: Social Engineering
  • Chapter 12: Bypassing Antivirus Applications
  • Chapter 13: Post Exploitation
  • Chapter 14: Web Application Testing
  • Chapter 15: Wireless Attacks
  • Chapter 16: A Stack-Based Buffer Overflow in Linux
  • Chapter 17: A Stack-Based Buffer Overflow in Windows
  • Chapter 18: Structured Exception Handler Overwrites
  • Chapter 19: Fuzzing, Porting Exploits, and Metasploit Modules
  • Chapter 20: Using the Smartphone Pentesting Framework
Download Penetration Testing: A Hands-On Introduction To Hacking.


This book is about learning shellcode's of the OS and how OS can be exploited. This book is all about discovering and exploiting security holes in devices to take over.
Authors: Chris Anley, John Heasman, Felix "FX" Linder, Gerardo Richarte.


  • Stack Overflows
  • Shellcode
  • Introduction to Format String Bugs
  • Windows Shellcode
  • Windows Overflows
  • Overcoming Filters
  • Introduction to Solaris Exploitation
  • OS X Shellcode
  • Cisco IOS Exploitation
  • Protection Mechanisms
  • Establishing a Working Environment
  • Fault Injection
  • The Art of Fuzzing
  • Beyond Recognition: A Real Vulnerability versus a Bug
  • Instrumented Investigation: A Manual Approach
  • Tracing for Vulnerabilities
  • Binary Auditing: Hacking Closed Source Software
  • Alternative Payload Strategies
  • Writing Exploits that Work in the Wild
  • Attacking Database Software
  • Unix Kernel Overflows
  • Exploiting Unix Kernel Vulnerabilities
  • Hacking the Windows Kernel
Download The ShellCoder's HandBook.


This handbook is about finding and exploiting the web applications.
Authors: Dafydd Stuttard, Marcus Pinto.


  • Chapter 1 Web Application (In)security
  • Chapter 2 Core Defense Mechanisms
  • Chapter 3 Web Application Technologies
  • Chapter 4 Mapping the Application
  • Chapter 5 Bypassing Client-Side Controls
  • Chapter 6 Attacking Authentication
  • Chapter 7 Attacking Session Management
  • Chapter 8 Attacking Access Controls
  • Chapter 9 Attacking Data Stores
  • Chapter 10 Attacking Back-End Components
  • Chapter 11 Attacking Application Logic
  • Chapter 12 Attacking Users: Cross-Site Scripting
  • Chapter 13 Attacking Users: Other Techniques
  • Chapter 14 Automating Customized Attacks
  • Chapter 15 Exploiting Information Disclosure
  • Chapter 16 Attacking Native Compiled Applications
  • Chapter 17 Attacking Application Architecture
  • Chapter 18 Attacking the Application Server
  • Chapter 19 Finding Vulnerabilities in Source Code
  • Chapter 20 A Web Application Hacker's Toolkit
  • Chapter 21 A Web Application Hacker's Methodology
So, these are the top 5 best hacking books on the market. There may be more fascinating books in the future that make take place in the top list. But for now, these are the best hacking books. Read and share your experience with these books.
More information

May 21, 2020

Practical Bleichenbacher Attacks On IPsec IKE

We found out that reusing a key pair across different versions and modes of IPsec IKE can lead to cross-protocol authentication bypasses, enabling the impersonation of a victim host or network by attackers. These vulnerabilities existed in implementations by Cisco, Huawei, and others.

This week at the USENIX Security conference, I will present our research paper on IPsec attacks: The Dangers of Key Reuse: Practical Attacks on IPsec IKE written by Martin Grothe, Jörg Schwenk, and me from Ruhr University Bochum as well as Adam Czubak and Marcin Szymanek from the University of Opole [alternative link to the paper]. This blog post is intended for people who like to get a comprehensive summary of our findings rather than to read a long research paper.

IPsec and Internet Key Exchange (IKE)

IPsec enables cryptographic protection of IP packets. It is commonly used to build VPNs (Virtual Private Networks). For key establishment, the IKE protocol is used. IKE exists in two versions, each with different modes, different phases, several authentication methods, and configuration options. Therefore, IKE is one of the most complex cryptographic protocols in use.

In version 1 of IKE (IKEv1), four authentication methods are available for Phase 1, in which initial authenticated keying material is established: Two public key encryption based methods, one signature based method, and a PSK (Pre-Shared Key) based method.

Attacks on IKE implementations

With our attacks we can impersonate an IKE device: If the attack is successful, we share a set of (falsely) authenticated symmetric keys with the victim device, and can successfully complete the handshake – this holds for both IKEv1 and IKEv2. The attacks are based on Bleichenbacher oracles in the IKEv1 implementations of four large network equipment manufacturers: Cisco, Huawei, Clavister, and ZyXEL. These Bleichenbacher oracles can also be used to forge digital signatures, which breaks the signature based IKEv1 and IKEv2 variants. Those who are unfamiliar with Bleichenbacher attacks may read this post by our colleague Juraj Somorovsky for an explanation.

The affected hardware test devices by Huawei, Cisco, and ZyXEL in our network lab.

We show that the strength of these oracles is sufficient to break all handshake variants in IKEv1 and IKEv2 (except those based on PSKs) when given access to powerful network equipment. We furthermore demonstrate that key reuse across protocols as implemented in certain network equipment carries high security risks.

We additionally show that both PSK based modes can be broken with an offline dictionary attack if the PSK has low entropy. Such an attack was previously only documented for one of those modes (edit: see this comment). We thus show attacks against all authentication modes in both IKEv1 and IKEv2 under reasonable assumptions.

The relationship between IKEv1 Phase 1, Phase 2, and IPsec ESP. Multiple simultaneous Phase 2 connections can be established from a single Phase 1 connection. Grey parts are encrypted, either with IKE derived keys (light grey) or with IPsec keys (dark grey). The numbers at the curly brackets denote the number of messages to be exchanged in the protocol.

Where's the bug?

The public key encryption (PKE) based authentication mode of IKE requires that both parties exchanged their public keys securely beforehand (e. g. with certificates during an earlier handshake with signature based authentication). RFC 2409 advertises this mode of authentication with a plausibly deniable exchange to raise the privacy level. In this mode, messages three and four of the handshake exchange encrypted nonces and identities. They are encrypted using the public key of the respective other party. The encoding format for the ciphertexts is PKCS #1 v1.5.

Bleichenbacher attacks are adaptive chosen ciphertext attacks against RSA-PKCS #1 v1.5. Though the attack has been known for two decades, it is a common pitfall for developers. The mandatory use of PKCS #1 v1.5 in the PKE authentication methods raised suspicion of whether implementations resist Bleichenbacher attacks.

PKE authentication is available and fully functional in Cisco's IOS operating system. In Clavister's cOS and ZyXEL's ZyWALL USG devices, PKE is not officially available. There is no documentation and no configuration option for it and it is therefore not fully functional. Nevertheless, these implementations processed messages using PKE authentication in our tests.

Huawei implements a revised mode of the PKE mode mentioned in the RFC that saves one private key operation per peer (we call it RPKE mode). It is available in certain Huawei devices including the Secospace USG2000 series.

We were able to confirm the existence of Bleichenbacher oracles in all these implementations. Here are the CVE entries and security advisories by the vendors (I will add links once they are available):
On an abstract level, these oracles work as follows: If we replace the ciphertext of the nonce in the third handshake message with a modified RSA ciphertext, the responder will either indicate an error (Cisco, Clavister, and ZyXEL) or silently abort (Huawei) if the ciphertext is not PKCS #1 v1.5 compliant. Otherwise, the responder continues with the fourth message (Cisco and Huawei) or return an error notification with a different message (Clavister and ZyXEL) if the ciphertext is in fact PKCS #1 v1.5 compliant. Each time we learn that the ciphertext was valid, we can advance the Bleichenbacher attack one more step.

A Bleichenbacher Attack Against PKE

If a Bleichenbacher oracle is discovered in a TLS implementation, then TLS-RSA is broken since one can compute the Premaster Secret and the TLS session keys without any time limit on the usage of the oracle. For IKEv1, the situation is more difficult: Even if there is a strong Bleichenbacher oracle in PKE and RPKE mode, our attack must succeed within the lifetime of the IKEv1 Phase 1 session, since a Diffie-Hellman key exchange during the handshake provides an additional layer of security that is not present in TLS-RSA. For example, for Cisco this time limit is currently fixed to 60 seconds for IKEv1 and 240 seconds for IKEv2.

To phrase it differently: In TLS-RSA, a Bleichenbacher oracle allows to perform an ex post attack to break the confidentiality of the TLS session later on, whereas in IKEv1 a Bleichenbacher oracle only can be used to perform an online attack to impersonate one of the two parties in real time.

Bleichenbacher attack against IKEv1 PKE based authentication.

The figure above depicts a direct attack on IKEv1 PKE:
  1. The attackers initiate an IKEv1 PKE based key exchange with Responder A and adhere to the protocol until receiving the fourth message. They extract the encrypted nonce from this message, and record the other public values of the handshake.
  2. The attackers keep the IKE handshake with Responder A alive as long as the responder allows. For Cisco and ZyXEL we know that handshakes are cancelled after 60 seconds, Clavister and Huawei do so after 30 seconds.
  3. The attackers initiate several parallel PKE based key exchanges to Responder B.
    • In each of these exchanges, they send and receive the first two messages according to the protocol specifications.
    • In the third message, they include a modified version of the encrypted nonce according to the the Bleichenbacher attack methodology.
    • They wait until they receive an answer or they can reliably determine that this message will not be sent (timeout or reception of a repeated second handshake message).
  4. After receiving enough answers from Responder B, the attackers can compute the plaintext of the nonce.
  5. The attackers now have all the information to complete the key derivation and the handshake. They thus can impersonate Responder B to Responder A.

Key Reuse

Maintaining individual keys and key pairs for each protocol version, mode, and authentication method of IKE is difficult to achieve in practice. It is oftentimes simply not supported by implementations. This is the case with the implementations by Clavister and ZyXEL, for example. Thus, it is common practice to have only one RSA key pair for the whole IKE protocol family. The actual security of the protocol family in this case crucially depends on its cross-ciphersuite and cross-version security. In fact, our Huawei test device reuses its RSA key pair even for SSH host identification, which further exposes this key pair.

A Cross-Protocol Version Attack with Digital Signature Based Authentication

Signature Forgery Using Bleichenbacher's Attack

It is well known that in the case of RSA, performing a decryption and creating a signature is mathematically the same operation. Bleichenbacher's original paper already mentioned that the attack could also be used to forge signatures over attacker-chosen data. In two papers that my colleagues at our chair have published, this has been exploited for attacks on XML-based Web Services, TLS 1.3, and Google's QUIC protocol. The ROBOT paper used this attack to forge a signature from Facebook's web servers as proof of exploitability.

IKEv2 With Digital Signatures

Digital signature based authentication is supported by both IKEv1 and IKEv2. We focus here on IKEv2 because on Cisco routers, an IKEv2 handshake may take up to four minutes. This more relaxed timer compared to IKEv1 makes it an interesting attack target.

I promised that this blogpost will only give a comprehensive summary, therefore I am skipping all the details about IKEv2 here. It is enough to know that the structure of IKEv2 is fundamentally different from IKEv1.

If you're familiar with IT-security, then you will believe me that if digital signatures are used for authentication, it is not particularly good if an attacker can get a signature over attacker chosen data. We managed to develop an attack that exploits an IKEv1 Bleichenbacher oracle at some peer A to get a signature that can be used to break the IKEv2 authentication at another peer B. This requires that peer A reuses its key pair for IKEv2 also for IKEv1. For the details, please read our paper [alternative link to the paper].

Evaluation and Results

For testing the attack, we used a Cisco ASR 1001-X router running IOS XE in version 03.16.02.S with IOS version 15.5(3)S2. Unfortunately, Cisco's implementation is not optimized for throughput. From our observations we assume that all cryptographic calculations for IKE are done by the device's CPU despite it having a hardware accelerator for cryptography. One can easily overload the device's CPU for several seconds with a standard PC bursting handshake messages, even with the default limit for concurrent handshakes. And even if the CPU load is kept below 100 %, we nevertheless observed packet loss.

For the decryption attack on Cisco's IKEv1 responder, we need to finish the Bleichenbacher attack in 60 seconds. If the public key of our ASR 1001-X router is 1024 bits long, we measured an average of 850 responses to Bleichenbacher requests per second. Therefore, an attack must succeed with at most 51,000 Bleichenbacher requests.

But another limit is the management of Security Associations (SAs). There is a global limit of 900 Phase 1 SAs under negotiation per Cisco device in the default configuration. If this number is exceeded, one is blocked. Thus, one cannot start individual handshakes for each Bleichenbacher request to issue. Instead, SAs have to be reused as long as their error counter allows. Furthermore, establishing SAs with Cisco IOS is really slow. During the attack, the negotiations in the first two messages of IKEv1 require more time than the actual Bleichenbacher attack.

We managed to perform a successful decryption attack against our ASR 1001-X router with approximately 19,000 Bleichenbacher requests. However, due to the necessary SA negotiations, the attack took 13 minutes.

For the statistics and for the attack evaluation of digital signature forgery, we used a simulator with an oracle that behaves exactly as the ones by Cisco, Clavister, and ZyXEL. We found that about 26% of attacks against IKEv1 could be successful based on the cryptographic performance of our Cisco device. For digital signature forgery, about 22% of attacks could be successful under the same assumptions.

Note that (without a patched IOS), only non-cryptographic performance issues prevented a succesful attack on our Cisco device. There might be faster devices that do not suffer from this. Also note that a too slow Bleichenbacher attack does not permanently lock out attackers. If a timeout occurs, they can just start over with a new attack using fresh values hoping to require fewer requests. If the victim has deployed multiple responders sharing one key pair (e. g. for load balancing), this could also be leveraged to speed up an attack.

Responsible Disclosure

We reported our findings to Cisco, Huawei, Clavister, and ZyXEL. Cisco published fixes with IOS XE versions 16.3.6, 16.6.3, and 16.7.1. They further informed us that the PKE mode will be removed with the next major release.

Huawei published firmware version V300R001C10SPH702 for the Secospace USG2000 series that removes the Bleichenbacher oracle and the crash bugs we identified. Customers who use other affected Huawei devices will be contacted directly by their support team as part of a need-to-know strategy.

Clavister removed the vulnerable authentication method with cOS version 12.00.09. ZyXEL responded that our ZyWALL USG 100 test device is from a legacy model series that is end-of-support. Therefore, these devices will not receive a fix. For the successor models, the patched firmware version ZLD 4.32 (Release Notes) is available.


  • Why don't you have a cool name for this attack?
    The attack itself already has a name, it's Bleichenbacher's attack. We just show how Bleichenbacher attacks can be applied to IKE and how they can break the protocol's security. So, if you like, call it IPsec-Bleichenbacher or IKE-Bleichenbacher.
  • Do you have a logo for the attack?
  • My machine was running a vulnerable firmware. Have I been attacked?
    We have no indication that the attack was ever used in the wild. However, if you are still concerned, check your logs. The attack is not silent. If your machine was used for a Bleichenbacher attack, there should be many log entries about decryption errors. If your machine was the one that got tricked (Responder A in our figures), then you could probably find log entries about unfinished handshake attempts.
  • Where can I learn more?
    First of all, you can read the paper [alternative link to the paper]. Second, you can watch the presentation, either live at the conference or later on this page.
  • What else does the paper contain?
    The paper contains a lot more details than this blogpost. It explains all authentication methods including IKEv2 and it gives message flow diagrams of the protocols. There, we describe a variant of the attack that uses the Bleichenbacher oracles to forge signatures to target IKEv2. Furthermore, we describe the quirks of Huawei's implementation including crash bugs that could allow for Denial-of-Service attacks. Last but not least, it describes a dictionary attack against the PSK mode of authentication that is covered in a separate blogpost.

Media Coverage, Blogs, and more



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How Cybersecurity Enables Government, Health, EduTech Cope With COVID-19

The advent of the Covid-19 pandemic and the impact on our society has resulted in many dramatic changes to how people are traveling, interacting with each other, and collaborating at work. There are several trends taking place as a consequence of the outbreak, which has only continued to heighten the need for the tightest possible cybersecurity. Tools for Collaboration There has been a

via The Hacker News
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May 20, 2020

Top10 Java Script Blogs To Improve Coding Skills

10 Top JavaScript Blogs to Improve Coding Skills

The Best JavaScript Blogs

With two decades of improvement, JavaScript has become one of the most popular programming languages of all time. The journey started in 1995 when Brendan Eich created JavaScript in just 10 days. From there, it has seen multiple revisions, drafts, and growth in the form of frameworks, API's, modules, etc. Today, we will go forward and list the top JavaScript blogs from the internet so that you can enjoy the lastest development in the field of JavaScript.

According to RedMonk programming language rankings and, JavaScript is leading the pack in the terms of repositories and the most discussed programming language on StackOverFlow. The numbers itself speaks about the future of JavaScript as it has grown beyond the initial capabilities of simple DOM manipulations.

Learning JavaScript, on the other hand, can be a tricky proposition. New libraries, features, API's or Style Guide, pop up almost every day. The speed of iteration is beyond imagination, and that is why reading leading JavaScript blogs are the best approach to keep up with new changes.


JavaScript is blessed with experts that regularly contribute to the community using live streams, videos, blogs, podcasts, conferences and open source projects. An example of a cool experienced Javascript programmer is evilsoft who broadcasts awesome Javascript projects weekly on LiveEdu..

Some blogs are just gold even when they are not updated frequently. To help you reach the best content on JavaScript, let's list the best JavaScript blogs on the internet. The following blogs have a huge fan following and contain epic JavaScript content.

10 Top JavaScript Blogs to Improve Coding Skills

1. David Walsh Blog

David Walsh is a renowned name in the JavaScript world. He started his career with DZone, but his first real break came while working for SitePen as a Software Engineer. His blog composes of topics related to JavaScript, personal thoughts, guides and much more. The blog design is captivating and is going to hook you up on the first visit. Currently, he is working as a Senior Web Developer at Mozilla.

top javascript blogs

2. DailyJS

DailyJS is one of the best JavaScript blogs on the internet. The blog was started by Alex R. Young, an entrepreneur and Node.js expert in 2009. However, there are recent changes that don't sound great. Currently, the blog is no longer updated, but that does not make the content useless at all. The blog covers diverse content on JavaScript including frameworks, API's, libraries, etc.


3. SitePoint

SitePoint is one of the leading web development portals since 2000. The main attraction of SitePoint is the collection of highly detailed articles. They are aimed at teaching something new to the readers. JavaScript, on the other hand, is one of the leading topics on the website where experts around the world contribute regularly. The rate of the new blog post is high, and you won't find a blog post that doesn't teach you something new. Truly, a great learning place for any JavaScript developer.



Not technically a blog, but if you love JavaScript, then you need to follow the website's offerings. news section is an aggregator for excellent JavaScript news, tutorials, guides, and much more. All you need to do is move to their news section and discover tons of new content surrounding JavaScript. The domain is owned by CodeSchool and is mainly utilized to contribute to the community and a landing page to their courses.


5. Brendan Eich

What's the best place to find JavaScript knowledge? The inventor? Well, you are right. Brendan Eich, the creator of JavaScript, keeps his blog with filled with his musings and other excellent thought processes about JavaScript. You can also find videos on the blog. Virtually, the blog is the mind of JavaScript where you understand it in an entirely different manner.


6. JavaScript Playground

JavaScript Playground is yet another great place to get started with all the different JavaScript frameworks, API, and libraries. The focus is to work with the JavaScript ecosystem and provide high quality blog articles, screencast, and podcast for the audience. They also blog about different JavaScript guidelines, tips, and tricks.


7. Superhero.js

If you are looking for a superhero to fetch you the best resources on JavaScript, then you have finally found one. Superhero.js is a simple website that aims to collect everything related to JavaScript including videos, articles, presentations, etc. The content is divided into meaningful sections such as "Understanding JavaScript", "Organize Your Code", etc. Also, the page is regularly updated with new information.


8. JavaScript Jabber

Another "not a blog entry" into the list — JavaScript Jabber is a weekly podcast on JavaScript. Each podcast is around 1 hour of jabber and will sure have something for you to learn. They keep their tab on everything related to JavaScript, including core concepts to popular Framework discussions.


9. Medium JavaScript Collection

Is medium a blog? Technically, not, but it contains high quality JavaScript articles. Medium is a way to connect to the audience so be ready to read many opinions on how JavaScript should have been, and what's wrong with JavaScript. Other than the ramblings, it hosts amazing JavaScript content such as Speed Up Web Apps.


10. Smashing Magazine

Smashing Magazine is one of the oldest websites covering web designing and development. They have a dedicated section for JavaScript, which is constantly updated with tutorials of high caliber. The tutorials surround other web development ideas such as UX, Productivity, etc.



Here are the ten best JavaScript blogs to improve your coding skills. The blogs and mix of other content types will help you to keep up with new changes in JavaScript field, and improve yourself accordingly.

If you are new to JavaScript and want to get started as soon as possible, check out the JavaScript learn section on And, yes, it is the most popular programming language on which can benefit from your attention! Also, don't forget to leave a comment on how the JavaScript category page can be improved. We are listening!

Dr. Michael J. Garbade

About Author Dr. Michael Jurgen Garbade is the founder of LiveEdu.TV, Kyuda, Education Ecosystem. He is future Venture Capitalist, Future Politician and always on the lookout for the Next Big Challenge. Obtained Masters in business administration and physics, and a Ph.D. in finance with professional work experience in high-paced environments at Fortune 500 companies like Amazon and General Electric. Expertize: Python, PHP, Sencha Touch & C++, SEO, Finance, Strategy & E-commerce. He speaks English and German and has worked in the US, Europe, and Asia. At Education Ecosystem he is the CEO and runs business operations.

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How To Repair A Crashed SD Card And Protect Your Data

One of the many reasons users prefer Android devices is the ability to expand the amount of available storage space using the MicroSD Card. Since we have the ability add up to 256GB of external storage to Android devices today, you're bound to choke up when the SD card crashes without any tell-tale signs.
If you're experiencing issues on how to repair a crashed SD card on your Android device, there are certain fixes you can try out. Since there's not a singular solution to SD Card issues, we've created a guide to help you detect the issue with your external storage and mentioned multiple solutions to get your SD card working and even retrieve your stored data along with it.

Before you start

Don't format the card if you want to retain any of the photos on it. You can follow the tips in our separate article on how to format a write-protected SD card after you've tried to recover any files that are on your card.

Now, try and find a different card reader. If you've inserted an SD card into your laptop or PC's built-in slot and nothing happens, try using a different computer or a USB card reader.
Sometimes it's the reader at fault – not the card. You can buy a USB SD card reader online for just a couple of pounds which will accept both microSD and standard SD cards.

Steps to Repair a Crashed SD Card and Protect your Data:

Step 1 – Physically clean the SD Card

Despite being durable and built to last, SD cards are prone to crashing sometimes due to physical damage. Since you carry your phone around everywhere, some dirt and dust are bound to fill up in the cracks, that can make SD card stop working from time to time.
The first thing you can try to do on how to repair a crashed SD card is physically scrub and clean it.
  • Remove the MicroSD card from your Android device and place it on a clean surface. Make sure that you turn off your phone before pulling out the SD card for safety.
  • Flip the MicroSD card and using a white eraser, gently scrub the gold contact pins of the SD card to get rid of any residual dirt or grime.
  • If you have an alcohol-based cleaning solution or even nail polish remover around, dab it on to the connector pins using a Q-tip and gently rub it.
Once the SD card has dried out, you can plug it back into your Android device and turn it on to see if the solution has worked.

Step 2 – Format the SD Card

If your SD card is being detected by the Android device but you're having trouble accessing the saved files, there's a good chance that the files are corrupt. This could either be due to a particular broken file in the saved storage, or a virus that is causing the issue.
Either way, the only option there is left for you to try out is make the SD card reusable for formatting it.
  • From the home screen of your Android device, head over to the Settings app and then scroll down to find the Storage
  • In the Storage tab, you'll be able to find the Erase SD Card option, so go ahead and select it.
  • Confirm your action to delete all of the files and folders stored on your SD card and this should effectively solve the issue.

Step 3 – Check the SD card compatibility

If you are trying to figure out how to repair a crashed SD card on an older Android device, you might just need to look at the details more carefully. If your SD card fails to be recognized on the mobile device but works with your computer, the problem could be related to compatibility.
  • If the MicroSD card that you are trying to use with your older phone is SDXC version (built for higher transfer speeds), it will not be recognized.
  • Look up the maximum capacity of expandable storage that is supported by your device, since they can vary from starting at 64GB to all the way up to 256GB.

Step 4 – Diagnose the SD card using a PC

If a simple format did not help you solve the SD card problem, you might need a more technical analysis of the issue. To do so, you can plug in your SD card into a computer and use the diagnostic tools to find out the pertaining errors and effectively fix them.
  • Connect your Android mobile device to a computer using a USB cable.
  • Make sure that you connect Android as MSC (Mass storage mode) and not MTP (Media transfer mode). You can do this using the notification menu once you connect the phone to your computer.
  • Launch the Windows Explorer and right click on the SD card driver you see on the screen. In the options menu, choose Properties – Tools – Error Checking and wait for the entire process to complete.
  • The computer will try to update the software for your SD card and fix any errors that are causing it to crash.

Step 5 – Use chkdsk to fix/repair a corrupted SD card without data loss

The "chkdsk" command is your first choice for damaged SD card repair. Requiring no format, it allows you to fix or repair a corrupted SD card and regain access to all your important files on the device. Let's see how it works. (I'm using Windows 7 for this demonstration)
1. Plug in your SD card to your computer with a card reader.
2. Go to the start menu, type in "cmd" in a search bar, hit enter and then you can see something named "cmd. exe" in a list of programs.
3. Right-click "cmd. exe" and then you will get the following command windows that allow you to fix your corrupted SD card without formatting.
4. Type in "chkdsk /X /f sd card letter:" or "chkdsk sd card letter: /f ", for example,"chkdsk /X /f G:" or "chkdsk h: /f".
After finishing all the steps, Windows will have checked and fixed the file system of the SD card. It usually takes several minutes. After that, if you see "Windows has made corrections to the file system" in the command window, then congratulations! The damaged SD card is successfully fixed and you can see your data again. If not, you should try a third-party data recovery software to retrieve your files from the damaged SD card and repair it by formatting.
Once the process has been completed, you can go ahead and pop the SD card back into your Android device and see if the issue has been resolved.

Step 6 : Use EaseUS Data Recovery Wizard to recover data from damaged SD card

1. Connect the corrupted SD card to your PC, launch EaseUS's data recovery software, select the card and click "Scan".
2. A quick scan will first start to search all the lost and existing data on the SD card. And after that, a deep scan will automatically launch in order to find more files.
3. After the scan, choose those files you want to recover and click the "Recover" button to retrieve them back.

Final Words :

So finally through this article, you have got to know about the method by which the SD card could be repaired and hence the data in it could be saved for the further access. We have tried to present the method in easy to grab manner and we believe that you could possibly get to know about it easily. Hope that you would have liked the information in this post, if it is so then please share it with others. Also, do not forget to share the post with others, let most of the people know about the method. Share your comments about the post through using the comment box below. At last never the fewer thanks for reading this post!
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